The electron pairs shared between two atoms are not necessarily mutual equally.

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for example, while the common electron bag is common equally in the covalent link in (Cl_2), in (NaCl) the 3s electron is stripped indigenous the Na atom and is included into the electronic structure the the Cl atom - and the link is many accurately described as consists of individual (Na^+) and also (Cl^-) ion (ionic bonding). For most covalent substances, your bond character falls between these 2 extremes. We demonstrated below, the bond polarity is a valuable concept because that describing the sharing of electrons in between atoms in ~ a covalent bond:

A nonpolar covalent bond is one in which the electron are common equally between 2 atoms. A polar covalent bond is one in i beg your pardon one atom has actually a greater attraction because that the electrons 보다 the various other atom. If this loved one attraction is great enough, then the link is one ionic bond.


The aspects with the highest ionization energies are normally those with the most an unfavorable electron affinities, i beg your pardon are located toward the upper right edge of the periodic table (compare figure 2.9.2 and also Figure 2.10.2). Vice versa, the aspects with the shortest ionization energies are generally those through the least an adverse electron affinities and are situated in the reduced left edge of the regular table.

Because the propensity of an element to gain or lose electrons is so vital in determining its starrkingschool.netistry, various methods have been arisen to quantitatively describe this tendency. The many important method uses a measurement referred to as electronegativity (represented by the Greek letter chi, χ, pronounced “ky” as in “sky”), identified as the relative ability of one atom to attract electrons to chin in a starrkingschool.netistry compound. Elements with high electronegativities have tendency to gain electrons in starrkingschool.netical reactions and also are discovered in the upper right edge of the routine table. Elements with low electronegativities often tend to lose electrons in starrkingschool.netical reactions and are found in the lower left corner of the routine table.

Unlike ionization energy or electron affinity, the electronegativity of an atom is not a simple, fixed residential property that can be directly measured in a solitary experiment. In fact, one atom’s electronegativity must depend come some degree on its starrkingschool.netistry environment due to the fact that the nature of an atom are affected by its neighbors in a starrkingschool.netical compound. Nevertheless, when various methods because that measuring the electronegativity of one atom space compared, castle all tend to assign similar relative worths to a given element. For example, every scales predict that fluorine has actually the greatest electronegativity and also cesium the lowest of the stable elements, which says that all the approaches are measuring the same basic property.


Electronegativity is defined as the capacity of one atom in a certain molecule to attract electrons to itself. The greater the value, the greater the attractiveness because that electrons.

Electronegativity is a function of: (1) the atom"s ionization energy (how strong the atom hold on to its own electrons) and (2) the atom"s electron affinity (how strong the atom attracts other electrons). Both the these room properties the the isolated atom. An aspect that is will be highly electronegative has:

a big (negative) electron affinity a high ionization energy (always endothermic, or optimistic for neutral atoms)

and will

attract electrons from other atoms resist having actually its own electrons attractive away.

The Pauling Electronegativity Scale

The original electronegativity scale, occurred in the 1930s by Linus Pauling (1901– 1994) was based upon measurements of the strengths of covalent bonds in between different elements. Pauling arbitrarily set the electronegativity of fluorine at 4.0 (although this particular day it has actually been sleek to 3.98), thereby creating a scale in i m sorry all facets have values in between 0 and 4.0.

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Figure 2.12.2: Pauling Electronegativity worths of the s-, p-, d-, and also f-Block Elements. Worths for many of the actinides are approximate. Facets for i m sorry no data are obtainable are shown in gray. Source: Data from L. Pauling, The Nature that the starrkingschool.netistry Bond, third ed. (1960).

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api/deki/files/41657/328d4a9048b3d363269f6c9e791c9b98.jpg?revision=1" />Figure 2.12.3: Three-Dimensional Plots Demonstrating the Relationship in between Electronegativity and the Metallic/Nonmetallic personality of the Elements. (a) A plot of electrical resistivity (measured resistivity to electron flow) at or close to room temperature mirrors that substances with high resistivity (little to no measured electron flow) are electrical insulators, vice versa, substances v low resistivity (high measure electron flow) space metals. (b) A plot the Pauling electronegativities because that a like collection of aspects shows the high electronegativity worths (≥ about 2.2) correlate through high electric resistivities (insulators). Low electronegativity values (≤ about 2.2) correlate with low resistivities (metals). Because electrical resistivity is commonly measured only for solids and also liquids, the gaseous elements do not show up in component (a).