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Related Topics:bilateral symmetrymesaxonic conditionspherical symmetryradial symmetrybiradial symmetry...(Show more)

symmetry, in biology, the repetition of the parts in an pet or plant in an orderly fashion. Specifics symmetry refers to a correspondence of human body parts, in size, shape, and relative position, on opposite political parties of a dividing line or distributed around a main point or axis. V the exception of radial symmetry, external form has small relation to interior anatomy, since pets of an extremely different anatomical building and construction may have the same form of symmetry.

Symmetry in animals

Certain animals, an especially most sponges and the ameboid protozoans, absence symmetry, having either an irregular shape various for each individual or else one undergoing constant changes the form. The vast majority of animals, however, exhibition a identify symmetrical form. 4 such patterns of the contrary occur amongst animals: spherical, radial, biradial, and bilateral.


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In spherical symmetry, shown only by the protozoan groups Radiolaria and Heliozoia, the body has the form of a sphere and the components are i ordered it concentrically around or radiate from the centre of the sphere. Together an pet has no end or sides, and any aircraft passing with the centre will divide the pet into equivalent halves. The spherical kind of symmetry is feasible only in minute animals of straightforward internal construction, due to the fact that in spheres the interior mass is big relative come the surface area and becomes too huge for efficient functioning with rise in size and also complexity.

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In radial the contrary the body has the general form of a short or long cylinder or bowl, through a main axis indigenous which the body parts radiate or along which they space arranged in continuous fashion. The main axis is heteropolar—i.e., v unlike ends, one of which bear the mouth and also is termed the oral, or anterior, end, and also the other of which, dubbed the aboral, or posterior, end, creates the rear finish of the animal and may be afflicted with the anus. The main axis is thus termed the oral-aboral, or anteroposterior, axis. Other than in animals having an odd number of parts i ordered it in one fashion (as in the five-armed sea stars), any aircraft passing v this axis will divide the animal into symmetrical halves. Animals having three, five, seven, etc., parts in a circle have symmetry that might be ad to, respectively, as three-rayed, five-rayed, seven-rayed, etc.; only details planes with the axis will divide such pets into symmetrical halves. Radial symmetry is discovered in the cnidarians (including jellyfish, sea anemones, and also coral) and also echinoderms (such as sea urchins, brittle stars, and sea stars).