Summary: chapter 9

At school, Scout virtually starts a fight with a classmate called Cecil Jacobs after Cecil uses an attack racial slur to declarethat Atticus defends black people. Atticus has actually been request to safeguard Tom Robinson, a black man accused that raping a white woman. It is a case he cannot hope to win, however Atticus speak Scout that he must argue it to uphold his feeling of justice and also self-respect.

You are watching: Chapters ten and eleven are the last

At Christmastime, Atticus’s brother, Jack, comes to stay through Atticus because that a week throughout the holidays. Scout normally gets along well v Uncle Jack, yet when he arrives in Maycomb, she begins cursing in former of that (a habit the she has recently choose up). ~ supper, Jack has Scout sit on his lap and also he advises her no to curse in his presence. ~ above Christmas Day, Atticus bring away his children and also Jack to Finch’s Landing, a rambling old house in the country where Atticus’s sister, Alexandra, and also her husband live. There, enlightenment endures Francis, Alexandra’s grandson, who had actually been dropped turn off at Finch’s Landing for the holiday. Scout think Francis is the many “boring” child she has ever before met. She likewise has to put up through the prim and also proper Alexandra, that insists that Scout dress like a lady rather of attract pants.

One night, Francis tells Scout that Dill is a runt and then uses an attack racial slur to belittle Atticus, who sympathizes through black people.Scout curses Francis and also beats the up. Francis speak Alexandra and Uncle Jack the Scout fight him, and also Uncle Jack spanks Scout there is no hearing she side the the story. ~ they go back to Maycomb, Scout tells Jack what Francis said and also Jack i do not care furious. Scout renders him promise not to tell Atticus, however, because Atticus had actually asked her not to hit anyone over what is said around him. Jack promises and also keeps his word. Later, scout overhears Atticus informing Jack that Tom Robinson is innocent yet doomed, since it’s inconceivable the an all-white jury would ever acquit him.

Summary: thing 10


Mockingbirds don’t carry out one thing however make music for us to enjoy . . . However sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.

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Atticus, enlightenment says, is rather older than most of the other fathers in Maycomb. His fairly advanced age often embarrasses his children—he attract glasses and reads, for instance, instead of hunting and fishing like the other guys in town. One day, however, a foolish dog appears, wandering under the key street towards the Finches’ house. Calpurnia phone call Atticus, that returns residence with heck Tate, the sheriff of Maycomb. Hell brings a rifle and asks Atticus to shoot the animal. Come Jem and also Scout’s amazement, Atticus does so, hitting the dog through his very first shot in spite of his substantial distance indigenous the dog. Later, miss out on Maudie speak Jem and Scout that, as a young man, Atticus was the finest shot in the county—“One-shot Finch.” reconnaissance is passionate to brag around this, however Jem tells her to save it a secret, due to the fact that if Atticus want them come know, that would have actually told them.

Summary: chapter 11

On the way to the organization district in Maycomb is the house of Mrs. Dubose, a cantankerous old lady who always shouts at Jem and also Scout together they pass by. Atticus cautions Jem to it is in a gentleman come her, since she is old and also sick, however one day she speak the youngsters that Atticus is not any far better than the “niggers and trash he works for,” and Jem loses his temper. Jem take away a baton native Scout and destroys every one of Mrs. Dubose’s camellia bushes. As punishment, Jem must go come her house every day for a month and also read to her. Scout accompanies him and also they endure Mrs. Dubose’s abuse and also peculiar fits, which happen at the finish of every reading session. Each session is longer than the one before. Mrs. Dubose dies a little an ext than a month ~ Jem’s penalty ends. Atticus reveals to Jem the she was addicted to morphine and also that the reading was part of she successful initiative to combat this addiction. Atticus provides Jem a crate that Mrs. Dubose had provided her maid because that Jem; in the lies a single white camellia.

Analysis: Chapters 9–11

The fire in i m sorry the previous section culminated represents vital turning allude in the narrative structure of To death a Mockingbird. Before the fire, the novel centers on Scout’s childhood world, the gamings that she plays with Jem and also Dill, and also their childhood superstitions around Boo Radley. After the fire, Boo Radley and also childhood pursuits start to retreat from the story, and the drama that the trial take away over. This shift begins the novel’s gradual dramatization that the loss-of-innocence theme, together adult problems and concerns start disrupting the happy people of the Finch children.

The chance for the adult world to intrude on Scout’s life is the trial of Tom Robinson. Due to the fact that Robinson is a black man accused that raping a white woman, the white citizens of Maycomb are furious that Atticus, the town’s best lawyer, would pick to aid his cause. The townspeople are unwilling to border their screens of anger to Atticus himself; Scout and Jem end up being targets as well. The town of Maycomb, whose inhabitants have actually been gift thus much in a mostly positive light, suddenly turns against the Finches, as the ugly, racist underbelly of southern life exposes itself. Also members of Atticus’s very own family—Alexandra and her obnoxious grandson—condemn his decision to defend Tom Robinson. Chapter 9 marks Alexandra’s very first appearance in the story, and her portrayal is greatly negative; only later will she develop into a sympathetic character.

The adversity confronted by the family members reveals Atticus’s education style, his focus on instilling moral values in Jem and Scout. An especially important come Atticus space justice, restraint, and also honesty. He speak his children to avoid obtaining in fights, even if they space verbally abused, and also to exercise quiet vessel instead. As soon as he provides Jem and Scout air rifles as presents, that advises them the it is a sin to death a mockingbird. This idea is, the course, the resource of the novel’s title, and also it mirrors the book’s preoccupation with injustices inflicted ~ above innocents. In different ways, Jem and also Scout, Boo Radley, and Tom Robinson are all “mockingbirds.”

The event with the mad dog demonstrates Atticus’s courage and also symbolizes the town’s dependence upon his defense from both the rabid animal and also the worst angry within themselves. The Scout, in particular, is so impressed v the masculine prowess v which she associates his marksmanship symbolizes just how much she needs to learn around courage. For, in Atticus’s mind, true bravery has actually nothing to perform with weapons. The subsequent events surrounding Mrs. Dubose give him an possibility to show Jem what the considers genuine courage. Mrs. Dubose, in numerous ways, represents whatever wrong v Maycomb: she is unforgivably racist, rain curses ~ above the children and denigrating Atticus for representing a black man. However the darkness in she is balanced by she bravery and also determination, and also just as Atticus loves Maycomb despite its flaws, that respects Mrs. Dubose because that possessing “real courage,” i m sorry he describes as “when you understand you’re licked prior to you begin but you begin anyway and you check out it with no matter what.” This attitude, that course, fittingly describes Atticus’s technique to the Tom Robinson case. Atticus puts right into practice every moral idea the he espouses, i m sorry is the vital to his prestige in Maycomb and also his heroism in the novel.

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The camellia the Mrs. Dubose leaves Jem constitutes a distillation the what Atticus considers her vital goodness. She has actually sloughed off she mortal persona, one that is racist and also irritable, and also the whiteness of the flower symbolizes the purity of spirit that Atticus attributes to everyone. Jem’s initial refusal of the gift symbolizes his i can not qualify to watch this goodness. Return Mrs. Dubose’s gesture seems to imply an appreciation of Jem, Jem has actually not however matured sufficient to establish that good and evil deserve to coexist in ~ the same person; he for this reason remains unwilling to expropriate that Mrs. Dubose could represent anything good.