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This contents is taken from our book, regulating Pig Health, the industry leading pig publication. Available currently from 5mBooks.com


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The kidneys space the guts in the body that filter the end toxic and also other waste products from the bloodstream and maintain the body"s fluid balance (Fig.1-10). Blood passes from the aorta right into the kidney where it is filtered and returned earlier into the blood stream. The toxic commodities are then passed with liquid into the ureters which lead under to the bladder. Urine pipeline the bladder via the urethra to the exterior.

TerminologyCalculi - These might be seen as powder choose deposits top top the vulva that sow or as small stones in the urine. They are as result of the crystallisation that mineral deposits and also are not usually of any clinical significance. They are an especially striking in the kidneys of piglets which have died of TGE or greasy pig disease and room exaggerated in mercury poisoning.

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Cystitis - Inflammation usually because of infection that the lining the the bladder. The typical thickness the the bladder is around 10mm however in severe instances it might be as much as 50mm. Haemorrhage regularly occurs and also in such cases mortality in sows have the right to be high. Haematuria - Blood in urine. Constantly consider this as serious, a authorize of severe cystitis/pyelonephritis.Haemoglobinuria - complimentary haemoglobulin in the urine.Nephritis - Inflammation the the kidney. It have the right to be linked with several different bacteria that space transmitted one of two people via the bloodstream (septicaemia) or reflux indigenous the bladder. Bacteria or your toxins can damages the vulnerable filtering device of the kidney. These incorporate Staphylococcus hyicus (greasy pig disease), salmonella, streptococci and erysipelas. Actinobaculum suis (formally recognized as Eubacterium suis or Corynebacterium suis) is the commonest certain cause of ascending (i.e. Reflux) nephritis and also cystitis. Haemorrhage into the kidney is typical in the swine fevers. Fungal mycotoxins may additionally damage the kidneys but do not cause inflammation.pH - to pee is generally slightly acid, pH5 to 6.6. (Neutral is pH7). ~ weaning however, urine i do not care alkaline (>pH7) for approximately 3 weeks. Sows v pH more than 7.5 probably have pyelonephritis and also mortality in such animals can be high specifically if that reaches a level of 8.Proteinuria - Protein in the urine. Typical levels space 6-20mg/100 ml. Levels space elevated in kidney disease.Pyelonephritis - The ureters arise native the cup-shaped pylorus or collecting area in the kidneys. Infection of this area along with the kidney is called pyelonephritis. The is a common an illness in the sow. Bacteria linked with this incorporate E. Coli, streptococci and also Actinobaculum suis the latter being the most common and important.Pyuria - Pus in the urine.

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Urethritis - Inflammation of the urethra.


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