To explain how a covalent link forms. To use the octet dominance to covalent compounds

You have currently seen instances of substances that contain covalent bonds. One substance stated previously was water (\(\ceH2O\)). You deserve to tell indigenous its formula the it is not an ionic compound; the is not created of a metal and also a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those the ionic compounds.

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Electron Sharing

Previously, we disputed ionic bonding where electrons can be moved from one atom to an additional so the both atoms have an energy-stable outer electron shell. Because most fill electron shells have eight electron in them, starrkingschool.netists called this propensity the octet rule. However, there is another way an atom can attain a complete valence shell: atoms can share electrons.

This ide can be shown by using 2 hydrogen atoms, each of which has a solitary electron in that is valence shell. (For little atoms such together hydrogen atoms, the valence shell will it is in the an initial shell, which holds only two electrons.) We can represent the 2 individual hydrogen atoms together follows:


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The Lewis chart of 2 hydrogen atoms sharing electrons looks choose this:


This depiction of molecule is simplified additional by utilizing a dash to stand for a covalent bond. The hydrogen molecule is then represented as follows:


Each fluorine atom contributes one valence electron, making a single bond and giving each atom a complete valence shell, i m sorry fulfills the octet rule:


The circles show that each fluorine atom has actually eight electrons approximately it. Similar to hydrogen, we can represent the fluorine molecule with a dash in ar of the bonding electrons:



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In this molecule, the hydrogen atom does not have nonbonding electrons, when the fluorine atom has actually six nonbonding electron (three lone electron pairs). The circles show how the valence electron shells room filled because that both atoms.

Example \(\PageIndex1\)

Use Lewis diagrams to indicate the development of the following:

Cl2 HBr


a. Once two chlorine atoms kind a chlorine molecule, they share one pair the electrons. In Cl2 molecule, each chlorine atom is surrounded by an octet variety of electrons.

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The Lewis diagram for a Cl2 molecule is comparable to the one because that F2 (shown above).