You are watching: How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?
Ionic bonding generally occurs when it is basic for one atom to lose one or an ext electrons and another atom to get one or more electrons. However, some atoms won’t provide up or acquire electrons easily. Yet they still get involved in compound formation. How? there is one more mechanism because that obtaining a complete valence shell: sharing electrons. Once electrons room shared in between two atoms, they make a bond called a covalent bond.
Let us highlight a covalent bond by making use of H atoms, v the understanding that H atoms require only two electrons to fill the 1s subshell. Every H atom starts through a single electron in its valence shell:
The 2 H atoms can share your electrons:
We deserve to use one to show that each H atom has actually two electrons around the nucleus, fully filling each atom’s valence shell:
Because each H atom has actually a fill valence shell, this link is stable, and also we have actually made a diatomic hydrogen molecule. (This describes why hydrogen is just one of the diatomic elements.) for simplicity’s sake, that is not unexplained to represent the covalent bond v a dash, instead of with two dots:
Because 2 atoms space sharing one pair that electrons, this covalent shortcut is dubbed a single bond. As another example, consider fluorine. F atoms have actually seven electron in your valence shell:
These 2 atoms have the right to do the same thing that the H atom did; castle share your unpaired electron to do a covalent bond.
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Note the each F atom has actually a finish octet about it now:
We can also write this utilizing a dash to represent the shared electron pair:
There space two different species of electrons in the fluorine diatomic molecule. The bonding electron pair makes the covalent bond. Every F atom has actually three various other pairs of electron that execute not participate in the bonding; lock are referred to as lone pair electrons. Every F atom has actually one bonding pair and also three lone pairs of electrons.
Covalent bonds deserve to be made between different elements as well. One example is HF. Each atom start out v an odd number of electrons in that is valence shell: