Covalent bonding occurs when pairs of electron are shared by atoms. Atoms will certainly covalently link with various other atoms in order to gain an ext stability, which is obtained by developing a full electron shell. By sharing your outer many (valence) electrons, atoms deserve to fill up their external electron shell and also gain stability. Nonmetals will certainly readily kind covalent bond with various other nonmetals in stimulate to acquire stability, and can type anywhere between one to 3 covalent binding with various other nonmetals depending on how plenty of valence electron they posses. Although it is stated that atom share electrons as soon as they type covalent bonds, they do not commonly share the electron equally.

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Only when two atom of the exact same element type a covalent bond space the mutual electrons actually mutual equally between the atoms. Once atoms of different aspects share electrons with covalent bonding, the electron will certainly be drawn much more toward the atom v the greater electronegativity bring about a polar covalent bond. When contrasted to ionic compounds, covalent compound usually have actually a reduced melting and also boiling point, and have much less of a propensity to dissolve in water. Covalent compounds can be in a gas, liquid, or hard state and do no conduct power or warm well. The types of covalent bonds deserve to be identified by looking in ~ the Lewis dot structure of the molecule. For each molecule, over there are different names because that pairs of electrons, depending if it is shared or not. A pair that electrons the is shared between two atoms is referred to as a bond pair. A pair that electrons that is not shared between two atoms is referred to as a lone pair.

Octet Rule

The Octet Rule needs all atom in a molecule to have 8 valence electrons--either through sharing, shedding or obtaining electrons--to become stable. Because that Covalent bonds, atoms tend to share your electrons v each other to fulfill the Octet Rule. It requires 8 electrons because that is the amount of electrons necessary to to fill a s- and also p- orbital (electron configuration); likewise known as a noble gas configuration. Every atom wants to come to be as steady as the noble gases that have actually their outer valence covering filled since noble gases have actually a fee of 0. Although that is crucial to psychic the "magic number", 8, keep in mind that over there are plenty of Octet dominance exceptions.

Example: as you deserve to see from the picture below, Phosphorus has actually only 5 electrons in its external shell (bolded in red). Argon has a total of 8 electron (bolded in red), which satisfies the Octet Rule. Phosphorus requirements to obtain 3 electrons to satisfy the Octet Rule. It desires to be like Argon who has actually a full outer valence shell.



Below is a Lewis dot framework of Carbon dioxide demonstrating a twin bond. As you deserve to see from the photo below, Carbon dioxide has actually a full of 1 Carbon atom and 2 Oxygen atoms. Each Oxygen atom has 6 valence electrons whereas the Carbon atom only has actually 4 valence electrons. To satisfy the Octet Rule, Carbon requirements 4 much more valence electrons. Since each Oxygen atom has 3 lone bag of electrons, they have the right to each share 1 pair of electrons v Carbon; together a result, pour it until it is full Carbon"s outer valence covering (Satisfying the Octet Rule).


Example 3: Acetylene

Below is a Lewis dot framework of Acetylene demonstrating a triple bond. Together you can see native the photo below, Acetylene has a total of 2 Carbon atoms and also 2 Hydrogen atoms. Each Hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron whereas every Carbon atom has 4 valence electrons. Every Carbon requirements 4 an ext electrons and each Hydrogen requirements 1 an ext electron. Hydrogen share its only electron with Carbon to get a complete valence shell. Now Carbon has 5 electrons. Due to the fact that each Carbon atom has actually 5 electrons--1 single bond and 3 unpaired electrons--the 2 Carbons have the right to share your unpaired electrons, forming a triple bond. Currently all the atoms room happy with their full outer valence shell.


Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A Nonpolar Covalent Bond is produced when atom share their electrons equally. This normally occurs as soon as two atoms have comparable or the very same electron affinity. The closer the values of their electron affinity, the stronger the attraction. This occurs in gas molecules; likewise known as diatomic elements. Nonpolar covalent bonds have a comparable concept as polar covalent bonds; the atom with the higher electronegativity will draw away the electron native the weaker one. Because this declare is true--if we apply this come our diatomic molecules--all the atoms will have actually the very same electronegativity because they space the very same kind that element; thus, the electronegativities will cancel each various other out and will have actually a fee of 0 (i.e., a nonpolar covalent bond).

Examples of gas molecule that have a nonpolar covalent bond: Hydrogen gas atom, Nitrogen gas atoms, etc.

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As you can see from the picture above, Hydrogen gas has actually a complete of 2 Hydrogen atoms. Every Hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron. Since Hydrogen can only fit a max of 2 valence electron in that orbital, every Hydrogen atom only demands 1 electron. Every atom has 1 valence electron, so they have the right to just share, providing each atom two electrons each.