Fire engines have advanced throughout the last four centuries. The first fire engines to be human-propelled water pumps v no room for personnel. Around the finish of the 1800s, the hazard of fire within densely populated locations brought about paid firefighters equipped with steeds to pull the at an early stage apparatus. The modern fire engine arised in the 1960s equipped with water pumps, a reservoir, and enclosed seats because that the crew. 

 As the fire threats started to change, therefore did the expertise of the fire engine. 

Taking a look at the national Fire security Association (NFPA) typical 1901, typical for Automotive Fire Apparatus, it classifies the vehicles by type and function. This is important since it produced universal fire truck standards and also terminology to aid fire departments discover an device that will fit their needs.

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Fire Engine types and Classification:


A type 1 fire truck, frequently responds to structural fires and also is the many common kind of fire truck in usage today. Densely populated locations depend ~ above a type 1 fire device to efficiently maneuver to the call and also deploy variety of ladders to reach fires in elevated buildings.

A typical custom pumper holds roughly 400 come 500 gallons the water. Oftentimes the quantity of water necessary to extinguish the fire can not be gave by the tank alone. Detect a reputable water supply is just one of the most basic operations when getting here on the fire scene.

In addition, form 1 pumpers space equipped to carry up to 4 firefighters. Commonly found on these apparatus space SCBA’s, chainsaws, one saws, and many different varieties of committed equipment dependence on the department’s needs.


A kind 2 fire truck features plenty of of the very same specifications and tools together the form 1 fire truck. They are also the common truck seen in a suburban area responding to structure fires. 

Commercial pumpers are more compact however still hold the exact same amount of equipment as type 1. Typically seen very first on the scene to start fire extinguishing jobs until more support arrives.

Type 2 pumpers typically carries 3 or 4 firefighters. Commonly found on these apparatus space SCBA’s, chainsaws, circular saws, and also many different varieties of devoted equipment dependent on the department’s needs.

A kind 3, form 4, and kind 6 space what are taken into consideration “wildland engines” or “brush trucks.” These space the vehicles that respond come wildfires and have the ability to journey in rough terrain come respond come a fire or rescue.

Wildland engines room specially designed because that the an approach of pump-and-roll. This is a tactic where the vehicle drives with the pump involved while a firefighter supplies a water tap to spray water ~ above the fire.


Type 3 has four-wheel cd driver to do driving over turbulent terrain easier and also has a best gross auto weight rating (GVWR) of over 26,000 lbs. The minimum number of personnel a type 3 must bring is 3.

Type 3 brush trucks are compelled to have actually a minimum of 500 us gallons the water and pump 150 us gallons every minute in ~ a pressure of 250 pounds every square inch. Type 3 and form 4 frequently look comparable to one another. However, the biggest difference is your minimum personnel and tank capacities.


Type 4 Wildland engine is comparable to a kind 3 but with really important differences. Type 4 are supplied to journey over turbulent terrain and weighs 26,000 lbs, however it sacrifices a smaller pump and less hose because that a larger 750-gallon tank. The type 4 conventional of pumping is 50 united state gallons per minute in ~ a press of 100 pounds every square inch. The minimum variety of personnel a form 4 must carry is 2.


Type 5, 6, & 7 space usually constructed specifically because that the department’s needs. These vehicles are commonly pick-up truck-based through 4-wheel drive.

These engines are frequently seen in both wildland and suburban settings. These fire engines have actually a much smaller configuration 보다 a typical kind 3 or 4 engine.

The smaller sized body still allows the room to carry 50 to 400 gallons that water with the maneuverability and ease of access that girlfriend don’t have in form 3 or 4.

Types 5 v 7 space used heavily for the initial fire suppression response, and their GVWR’s room rated in ascending order native 26,000 lbs in form 5 engines to 14,000 on kind 7. This engine category is draft to organize a minimum that 2 people and carry water tap diameters ranging from 1 customs to 1 ½ inch.

As a general ascendancy of thumb, fire engine types are specified from largest to the smallest size, species 1-2 gift the biggest to carry big pumps and ladders for framework fires, and varieties 5-7 being the smallest for navigating turbulent wildland terrain. Form 3 and 4 engines are mid-sized engines built both because that wildland mobility and big water capacity. The basic difference in between these 2 is that kind 4 engines have actually much bigger water tanks than type 3 engines.

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