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36 VOLT CHARGER tutorial
36 volt charger modern technology has retained pace v the technology revolution, as in most other areas, and also so current battery charging philosophy provides 3 phase (or 2 or 4 stage) microprocessor regulation charging profiles. These are the "smart chargers", and also quality units normally are not found in retail stores. The 3 stages or steps in lead acid battery charging are bulk, absorption, and also float mode(or sometimes finish shut turn off in part cases). Qualification, or equalization are occasionally considered another stage, usually for promotional purposes. A 2 stage unit will have the bulk and also float stages. The is important to use battery manufacturer"s recommendations on charging procedures and also voltages, or a high quality microprocessor managed charger, to keep battery capacity and service life.
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An enlarge 36 volt charger would function a fixed charging voltage, high enough to "force" energy (amps) into the battery pack. The lower the initial battery voltage (state of discharge), the less complicated this forcing process is, therefore you may see the amp meter (if therefore equipped) run as much as the charger"s maximum calculation amperage, and stay there a while. As battery fill voltage rises, as it does together the state of charge increases, the harder it is because that the 36 volt charger to pressure the amps in, so the amp price decreases. Eventually, the charger will a suggest where it"s output voltage can"t force any an ext into the battery pack, so current practically stops, yet depending on where this voltage suggest is, it may be high sufficient to overcharge end time, or keep the batteries in the gassing stage, dry out a flooded form battery. This chargers need to be monitored because that this reason, and also disconnected when the amp meter drops come the low point. Few of the older technology units have actually timers, and depending top top the setting and battery charge standing at the start of the charge cycle, may end up end charging if set too long, or under charging, if the timer is not collection long enough. Either problem can damages batteries, overcharging damaging quicker. Repetitive undercharging allows sulphation to build up, and eventually harden ~ above the plates, diminishing battery capacity. Lessened run time on batteries that room not specifically old is the usual symptom the this sulphation.
The "smart chargers" are profiled with modern-day charging viewpoint in mind, and likewise take info from the battery load to administer maximum charge advantage with minimum observation. The microprocessor enables a complete charge bike without need of setting a timer, and also doesn"t undercharge or overcharge, enabling proper battery management and also maximum battery life, if used regularly.
True gel batteries generally require a details charge profile, and also a gel details or gelatin selectable or gel suitable charger is called for. The optimal charging voltage for gelatin batteries is 2.3 come 2.36 volts per cell, and for a 36 volt charger this works out to 41.4 to 42.5 volts, i m sorry is reduced than a wet or AGM kind battery needs for a complete charge. Exceeding this voltage in a gel battery can cause bubbles in the electrolyte gel, and also permanent damage, as the balloon in the gel execute not dissipate once the over voltage condition ceases.
Three stage Battery Charging
The BULK stage in a 36 volt charger involves about 80% of the recharge, wherein the charge current is held continuous (in a consistent current charger), and voltage increases. The correctly sized charger will offer the battery as much present as it will certainly accept up to charger capacity (25% that battery volume in amp hours), and not advanced a wet battery over 125 F, or one AGM or gel (valve regulated) battery over 100 F. The target voltage because that a 36 volt charger because that AGM or some flooded batteries is 2.4 to 2.45 volts per cell, i m sorry is 43.2 come 44.1 volts.
The ABSORPTION stage (the staying 20%, approximately) in the AGM/flooded 36 volt charger has actually the charger holding in ~ the absorption voltage (between 43.2 VDC and 44.1 VDC, depending on charger collection points) and decreasing the existing until the battery fill is totally charged. If the battery won"t organize a charge, or the current does not drop after the supposed recharge time, the battery fill may have actually some permanent sulphation.
The FLOAT phase is whereby the fee voltage is diminished to around 2.25 volts every cell, which is around 40.5 VDC and held constant, when the existing is lessened to less than 1% that battery capacity. This mode have the right to be used to keep a totally charged battery pack indefinitely. Some chargers shut off instead of preserving a to rise voltage, and monitor the batteries, initiating a fee cycle if necessary.
Recharge time have the right to be approximated by separating the amp hours to be changed by 90% of the rated output of the charger. For example, a 100 amp hour battery load with a 10 % discharge would need 10 amps replaced. Making use of a 5 amp 36 volt charger, we have actually 10 amp hours/(.9x5) amps = 2.22 hour recharge time estimate. A deep discharged battery fill deviates indigenous this formula, requiring much more time per amp to be replaced.
Recharge frequency referrals vary from experienced to expert. It appears that depth of discharge affects battery life more than frequency the recharge. Basically, lead mountain batteries, consisting of the sealed species (AGM and Gel) like to be kept totally charged as soon as possible. Because that example, recharging once the devices is no going come be supplied for a if (meal rest or whatever), may keep the median depth the discharge above 50% because that a business day. This basically uses to battery applications wherein the typical depth the discharge falls below 50% in a day, and also the battery have the right to be completely recharged once throughout a 24 hour period, as in an industrial application. This is referred to as "opportunity charging".
Equalization is basically a managed over charge. Some charger manufacturers speak to the height voltage the charger attains at the finish of the bulk mode (absorption voltage) an equalization voltage, however technically it"s not. Higher capacity wet (flooded) battery sometimes benefit from this procedure, particularly the physically high batteries. The electrolyte in a wet battery have the right to stratify over time, if not cycled occasionally. In equalization, the voltage is carried up above typical peak charging voltage (to 15 come 16 volts in a 12 volt charger) well into the gassing stage, and held for a solved (but limited) period. This stirs up the chemistry in the entire battery, "equalizing" the toughness of the electrolyte, and knocking turn off any loosened sulphation that may be ~ above the plates.
The building and construction of the sealed battery (AGM and Gel), all but eliminates any kind of stratification, and also most all manufacturers of this type do no recommend the (advising against it). Part manufacturers (notably Concorde) perform a procedure, however observing voltage and also time specifications are an essential to prevent battery damage.
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36 Volt Charger Sizes
A 36 volt charger can be had from a low milliamp output (200, 500 milliamps), as much as 25 amps, that will certainly plug right into a 115 volt wall surface outlet. Some of the smaller units space unregulated, and also simply have actually a addressed voltage output, choose the chargers the old. These tend to take much longer to charge, and also should be avoided as soon as possible. Smaller amp capacities are ideal for smaller sized batteries, prefer electronic and security kind applications or kid scooters in the 1.3 to 12 amp hour range. They likewise can be supplied for maintain on larger batteries. A tool amp output 36 volt charger would certainly be in the selection of 10 to 15 amps or so, and be provided for numerous applications using about 100 amp hrs of battery and up, or applications with a consistent amp fill (power supply application). Because that a strength supply type situation, the continuous draw should be a low percentage of the charger maximum amp capacity, to save the charger from going back into the rise or mass stage. Larger units in the 36 volt charger models are about 20 to 25 amps calculation (except commercial, 220 VAC input types, or 3 phase). This are provided in large amp hour battery banks, or applications desiring much faster recharge times. Sometimes the larger units are provided where a generator is the AC power source, and also generator operation time is a consideration.
many battery manufacturers recommend sizing the charger at about 25% of the battery capacity (ah = amp hour capacity). Thus, a 100 ah 36 volt battery fill would take around a 25 amp 36 volt charger (or less). Larger chargers may be provided to decrease fee time, however may decrease battery life. Smaller sized chargers room fine for long term floating, e.g. A 2 or 4 amp "smart charger" can be offered for battery maintain between higher amp bike use, yet would be inefficient or burn up if used to bulk charge huge capacity, deep discharged batteries.
For much more information, or 36 volt charger application details recommendations, email us or speak to the technology line.