Gastrointestinal tract, likewise called digestive tract or alimentary canal, pathway whereby food beginning the body and solid wastes are expelled. The cradle tract has the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. See digestion.

You are watching: Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth


Figure 1: Digestive mechanism organs and functions – overview.

The oral Cavity or Mouth:

The oral cavity, or mouth, is the suggest of entry of food into the cradle system. The cheeks, tongue, and also palate framework the mouth, i m sorry is additionally called the oral cavity (or buccal cavity). The arched form of the roof of your mouth is called the palate. If you run your tongue along the roof of her mouth, the front component is the hard palate, and at the back, the roof i do not care fleshier. This part of the palate, known as the soft palate. A fleshy bead of tissue called the uvula drops under from the facility of the posterior leaf of the soft palate. Although part have said that the uvula is a vestigial organ, the serves crucial purpose. As soon as you swallow, the soft palate and uvula relocate upward, helping to keep foods and liquid indigenous entering the nasal cavity. Unfortunately, it can additionally contribute to the sound developed by snoring. 2 muscular folds extend downward native the soft palate, top top either next of the uvula. Between these two arches are the palatine tonsils, clusters of lymphoid tissue that defend the pharynx. The lingual tonsils are located at the basic of the tongue. These glands make antibodies that aid fight infection. Tonsillitis way that your tonsils space inflamed. Both bacteria and also viruses can reason tonsillitis.


Figure 2: dental cavity

The Tongue

The tongue is a workhorse, facilitating ingestion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion (lingual lipase), sensation (of taste, texture, and temperature that food), swallowing, and also vocalization. The tongue carry out three important digestive functions in the mouth:

Position food for optimal chewingGather food into a bolus (rounded mass)Position food for this reason it deserve to be swallowed

A wrinkles of mucous membrane ~ above the underside the the tongue, the lingual frenulum, tethers the tongue to the floor that the mouth. Human being with the congenital anomaly ankyloglossia, also known through the non-medical ax “tongue tie,” have actually a lingual frenulum the is too short or otherwise malformed. Serious ankyloglossia deserve to impair speech and also must be corrected with surgery.

The Teeth

The teeth, or dentes (singular = dens), space organs similar to bones the you use to tear, grind, and also otherwise mechanically breakdown food. During the course of your lifetime, you have two set of teeth (one collection of this is a dentition). Her 20 deciduous teeth, or infant teeth, an initial begin to show up at about 6 month of age. Between about age 6 and 12, these this are replaced by 32 permanent teeth. Relocating from the center of the mouth towards the side, these are as follows:

The eight incisors, four top and also four bottom, room the spicy front this you use for biting into food.The four cuspids (or canines) flank the incisors and have a pointed edge (cusp) to tear increase food. This fang-like teeth room superb for piercing hard or fleshy foods.Posterior to the cuspids space the eight premolars (or bicuspids), which have an in its entirety flatter shape with two rounded cusps helpful for mashing foods.The many posterior and largest room the 12 molars, which have actually several sharp cusps used to like food so the is all set for swallowing. The third members that each collection of three molars, top and also bottom, are commonly referred to together the wisdom teeth, due to the fact that their eruption is generally delayed until early adulthood. The is not unusual for wisdom teeth to fail to erupt; that is, they stay impacted. In this cases, the this are frequently removed by orthodontic surgery.

Anatomy the a Tooth: The teeth are secured in the alveolar processes (sockets) the the maxilla and also the mandible. Gingivae (commonly dubbed the gums) room soft tissues the line the alveolar processes and also surround the necks of the teeth.

Figure 3: This longitudinal section through a molar in that is alveolar socket mirrors the relationships in between enamel, dentin, and pulp.

The two key parts that a tooth are the crown, which is the section projecting over the gum line, and also the root, which is embedded within the maxilla and also mandible. Both parts contain one inner pulp cavity, containing loosened connective tissue with which run nerves and also blood vessels. The region of the pulp cavity the runs v the source of the this is dubbed the source canal. Surrounding the pulp cavity is dentin, a bone-like tissue. In the root of every tooth, the dentin is covered by an even harder bone-like great called cementum. In the crown of each tooth, the dentin is covered by an external layer of enamel, the hardest substance in the body.

Although enamel protects the underlying dentin and pulp cavity, that is still nevertheless susceptible to mechanical and also chemical erosion, or what is known as this decay. The most usual form, dental caries (cavities) establishes when colonies of bacteria feeding on sugars in the mouth release acids that reason soft tissue inflammation and also degradation that the calcium crystals the the enamel.


Figure 4:: progressed periodontal disease

The native periodontal means “around the tooth.” Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, are serious bacterial infections that attack the gums and the bordering tissues. If it’s left untreated, the disease will continue and the basic bone approximately the teeth will certainly dissolve and also will no longer have the ability to hold the teeth in place.

Gingivitis. This is the mildest type of periodontal disease. The gums are likely to come to be red, swollen, and tender. They might bleed easily during daily cleanings and also flossing.

Moderate to progressed periodontitis. This most advanced stage the gum condition shows far-ranging bone loss, deepening that periodontal pockets, and also possibly receding gums bordering the teeth. Teeth may loosen and also need to be extracted.

The salivary Glands

Many small salivary glands are housed in ~ the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue. These minor exocrine glands room constantly secreting saliva, either straight into the oral cavity or indirectly with ducts, also while friend sleep.

Figure 5:. Digestion of food begins in the (a) dental cavity. Food is masticated by teeth and also moistened by saliva secreted indigenous the (b) outstanding glands. Enzymes in the saliva start to digest starches and also fats. V the aid of the tongue, the resulting bolus is moved into the stomach by swallowing. (credit: alteration of work-related by the national Cancer Institute)

The major Salivary Glands

The submandibular glands, which room in the floor that the mouth, secrete saliva into the mouth v the submandibular ducts.

The sublingual glands, i m sorry lie listed below the tongue, use the lesser sublingual ducts to secrete saliva into the oral cavity.

The parotid glands lie in between the skin and also the masseter muscle, close to the ears

Saliva: The comprehensive chemical procedure of digestion begins in the mouth. As food is gift chewed, saliva, developed by the salivary glands, mixes through the food. Saliva is a watery substance developed in the mouths of many animals. Saliva consists of mucus that moistens food and also buffers the pH the the food. Saliva additionally contains lysozymes, which have actually antibacterial action to reduce tooth degeneration by inhibiting development of some bacteria. Saliva likewise contains one enzyme called salivary amylase that begins the procedure of convert starches in the food into a disaccharide called maltose. Another enzyme called lipase is created by the cell in the tongue. Lipases space a class of enzymes that can failure triglycerides- fats. The chewing and also wetting action detailed by the teeth and saliva prepare the food into a mass called the bolus for swallowing. The tongue help in swallowing—moving the bolus from the mouth right into the pharynx.

HOMEOSTATIC discrepancies : Mumps

The Parotid Glands: Mumps

Infections that the nasal passages and also pharynx have the right to attack any salivary gland. The parotid glands space the usual site of infection with the virus that reasons mumps (paramyxovirus). Mumps manifests through enlargement and also inflammation of the parotid glands, causing a properties swelling in between the ears and the jaw. Symptoms incorporate fever and throat pain, which have the right to be severe as soon as swallowing acidic building material such together orange juice.

In about one-third of males who are past puberty, mumps additionally causes testicular inflammation, commonly affecting only one testis and also rarely resulting in sterility. With the enhancing use and effectiveness the mumps vaccines, the incidence the mumps has diminished dramatically.

Figure 6: The pharynx, which runs from the nostrils to the esophagus and also the larynx.

The pharynx (throat) is associated in both digestion and also respiration. It receives food and also air indigenous the mouth, and air indigenous the nasal cavities. The pharynx situated in throat, connects mouth come the esophagus. Pharynx has three subdivisions. The many superior, the nasopharynx, is affiliated only in breathing and also speech. The other two subdivisions, the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx, are provided for both breathing and digestion.

Pharynx opens to 2 passageways:

the trachea, which leads to the lungs, ( air way) andthe esophagus, which leads to the stomach. 

The trachea has actually an opening dubbed the glottis, i m sorry is covered by a cartilaginous flap referred to as the epiglottis. once swallowing, the epiglottis closes the glottis and food passes right into the esophagus and also not the trachea. This arrangement permits food come be maintained out of the trachea. Once the food “goes under the wrong way,” the goes right into the trachea. As soon as food enters the trachea, the reaction is to cough, i beg your pardon usually pressures the food up and also out of the trachea, and earlier into the pharynx.


The esophagus is a tubular organ that associate the mouth come the stomach. The chewed and softened food passes with the stomach after being swallowed. The smooth muscle of the esophagus undergo a series of wave like movements called peristalsis that push the food toward the stomach. The peristalsis wave is unidirectional—it move food indigenous the mouth to the stomach.

A ring-like muscle called a sphincter forms valves in the digestive system. The gastro-esophageal sphincter is situated at the stomach finish of the esophagus. In response to swallowing and the press exerted by the bolus the food, this sphincter opens, and also the bolus beginning the stomach. Once there is no swallowing action, this sphincter is shut and also prevents the materials of the stomach from travel up the esophagus. As soon as the lower esophageal sphincter does not fully close, the stomach’s components can reflux (that is, earlier up right into the esophagus), causing heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)..


Figure 8: layers of stomach lining

The Stomach

The stomach is a J-shaped saclike organ in the top abdomen. The stomach is much like a bag i m sorry store food and secretes gastric digestive juices. The wall surface of the stomach is make of the same 4 layers as many of the remainder of the alimentary canal. In enhancement to the common circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers, the muscularis has an within oblique smooth muscle layer. Together a result, in enhancement to moving food v the canal, the stomach can vigorously churn food, mechanically break it down right into smaller particles. In the absence of food, the stomach deflates inward, and also its mucosa and also submucosa loss into a large fold dubbed a ruga.

The pH in the stomach is between 1.5 and 2.5. This highly acidic environment is compelled for the chemical malfunction of food and also the exploit of nutrients.A big part that digestion occurs in the stomach.

Figure 9:  The stomach wall showing wall layers, gastric pit and gastric glands.(one gland is displayed enlarged on the right)

The stomach wall surface is adjusted for the attributes of the stomach. In the epithelium, gastric pits lead to gastric glands that secrete gastric juice. The gastric glands contain different varieties of cells the secrete a variety of enzymes, consisting of hydrochloride acid (HCl), which activates the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin.

Parietal cells— produce both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor. HCl is responsible for the high mountain (pH 1.5 come 3.5) the the stomach contents and also is needed to activate the protein-digesting enzyme, pepsin. The acidity likewise kills much of the bacteria girlfriend ingest through food and helps come denature proteins, making them much more available because that enzymatic digestion. Intrinsic aspect is a glycoprotein important for the absorb of vitamin B12 in the little intestine. The parietal cells are capable of producing a very acidic pH that 2.0 within the stomach.Chief cells—Located mainly in the basal regions of gastric glands are chief cells, i beg your pardon secrete pepsinogen, the inactive proenzyme type of pepsin. HCl is important for the counter of pepsinogen to pepsin.Mucous neck cells—secrete thin, acidic mucus that is much different from the rubber secreted by the goblet cell of the surface epithelium. The role of this mucus is not right now known.Enteroendocrine cells— secrete various hormones – incorporate gastrin,

The mix of every one of the stomach secretions is recognized as gastric juice. Food start the stomach and combines with gastric juice to form a pasty substance called chyme. Chyme then pipeline the stomach by way of the pyloric sphincter and enters the duodenum.

The Mucosal Barrier: The mucosa of the stomach is exposed come the very corrosive mountain of gastric juice. Gastric enzymes that have the right to digest protein can also digest the stomach itself. The stomach is safeguarded from self-digestion through the mucosal barrier. This obstacle has several components. First, the stomach wall surface is spanned by a thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus. This mucus develops a physical barrier, and also its bicarbonate ions neutralize acid. Second, the epithelial cells of the stomach’s mucosa fulfill at chop junctions, which block gastric juice native penetrating the underlying tissue layers. Finally, stem cells located where gastric glands sign up with the gastric pits easily replace damaged epithelial mucosal cells, when the epithelial cells room shed. In fact, the surface ar epithelium of the stomach is completely replaced every 3 come 6 days.


As effective as the mucosal barrier is, it is not a “fail-safe” mechanism. Sometimes, gastric juice eats far at the superficial lining of the stomach mucosa, developing erosions, which greatly heal on their own. Deeper and also larger erosions are referred to as ulcers.

Why walk the mucosal obstacle break down? A variety of factors deserve to interfere with its capacity to safeguard the stomach lining. The majority of all ulcers are resulted in by either extreme intake the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, or Helicobacter pylori infection.

Antacids help relieve symptoms of ulcers such together “burning” pain and also indigestion. As soon as ulcers are led to by NSAID use, convert to various other classes of ache relievers allows healing. When led to by H. Pylori infection, antibiotics are effective.

A potential complication that ulcers is perforation: Perforated ulcers develop a hole in the stomach wall, bring about peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum). These ulcers have to be repaired surgically.

Small Intestine

The small intestine is a lengthy muscular tube of about 20 feet long and around an inch in diameter. Chyme move from the stomach come the tiny intestine. The small intestine is the organ where the cradle of protein, fats, and also carbohydrates is completed and also absorb most of the nutrients from what us eat and also drink.

Small Intestine – Structure

The coiled pipe of the small intestine is subdivided into three regions. From proximal (at the stomach) come distal, these space the Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum.

The shortest region is the 25.4-cm (10-in) duodenum, which begins at the pyloric sphincter and also makes a C-shaped curve and join the jejunum.. Digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and also gallbladder enter the duodenum. Bile is created in the liver and also stored and concentrated in the gallbladder. Bile includes bile salts which emulsify lipids while the pancreas to produce enzymes that catabolize starches, disaccharides, proteins, and also fats. This digestive juices break down the food corpuscle in the chyme right into glucose, triglycerides, and also amino acids. Some chemical digestion of food takes place in the duodenum. Absorb of fatty acids additionally takes location in the duodenum.
The jejunum is about 0.9 meter (3 feet) long (in life) and runs indigenous the duodenum come the ileum. Here, hydrolysis of nutrients is continued while most of the carbohydrates and also amino mountain are took in through the minister lining. The bulk of chemistry digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in the jejunum.The ileum is the longest component of the small intestine, measuring about 1.8 meter (6 feet) in length. The ileum joins the cecum, the very first portion the the huge intestine, in ~ the ileocecal sphincter (or valve). The undigested food is sent out to the colon from the ileum via peristaltic motions of the muscle. The vermiform, “worm-like,” appendix is located at the ileocecal valve. The postposition of human beings secretes no enzymes and has an insignificant role in immunity.


The wall of the tiny intestine is written of the same four layers typically present in the alimentary system. The small intestine has actually a very folded inner surface ar containing finger-like projections dubbed the villi. The apical surface of every villus has plenty of microscopic projections dubbed microvilli. return their small size provides it difficult to check out each microvillus, their linked microscopic appearance argues a mass of bristles, which is termed the brush border. These structures are lined v epithelial cells on the luminal next and allow for the nutrient to be soaked up from the digested food and took in into the blood present on the other side. The villi and microvilli, with their many folds, boost the surface area of the intestine and increase absorption effectiveness of the nutrients. soaked up nutrients in the blood are carried into the blood in hepatic portal vein, which leader to the liver. There, the liver regulates the circulation of nutrient to the rest of the body and also removes toxicity substances, including drugs, alcohol, and also some pathogens.

Figure 12. Villi space folds on the little intestine lining that boost the surface ar area come facilitate the absorb of nutrients.

Which the the adhering to statements about the little intestine is false?

Absorptive cells that line the small intestine have microvilli, small projections that boost surface area and assist in the absorption of food.The inside of the little intestine has many folds, referred to as villi.Microvilli are lined through blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.The inside of the little intestine is called the lumen.
The large intestine, shown in figure 13, reabsorbs the water from the undigested food material and also processes the rubbish material. The human huge intestine is much smaller in length contrasted to the small intestine yet larger in diameter. It has actually three parts: the cecum, the colon, and also the rectum. The cecum joins the ileum come the colon and is the receiving pouch for the rubbish matter. The colon have the right to be split into four regions, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon and the sigmoid colon. The main functions of the colon room to extract the water and mineral salt from undigested food, and to keep waste material. The colon is home to plenty of bacteria or “intestinal flora” that assist in the digestive processes.

Bacterial Flora

Most bacteria that go into the alimentary canal are killed by lysozyme, defensins, HCl, or protein-digesting enzymes. However, trillions the bacteria live within the big intestine and also are described as the bacterial flora. Many of the an ext than 700 varieties of these bacteria are nonpathogenic commensal biology that reason no injury as long as they remain in the gut lumen. In fact, many facilitate chemical digestion and absorption, and some synthesize certain vitamins, mostly biotin, pantothenic acid, and vitamin K. Fecal transplantation (or bacteriotherapy) is the deliver of stool indigenous a healthy donor into the cradle tract because that the function of dealing with recurrent C. Difficile colitis. As soon as antibiotics kill off too plenty of “good” bacteria in the cradle tract, fecal transplants can help replenish bacterial balance.


Each year, approximately 140,000 Americans space diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and another 49,000 die from it, making it one of the most deadly malignancies. World with a family background of colorectal cancer room at enhanced risk. Smoking, extreme alcohol consumption, and a diet high in pet fat and also protein likewise increase the risk. Regardless of popular opinion come the contrary, research studies support the conclusion the dietary fiber and calcium perform not alleviate the risk of colorectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer may be signaled through constipation or diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. Bleeding from the rectum might be either obvious or occult (hidden in feces). Because most colon cancers arise from benign mucosal growths dubbed polyps, cancer avoidance is concentrated on identifying this polyps. The colonoscopy is both diagnostic and also therapeutic. Colonoscopy not only enables identification that precancerous polyps, the procedure also allows them to it is in removed before they come to be malignant. Screening because that fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopy is recommended because that those over 50 years of age.

Rectum and Anus

The rectum is the terminal finish of the large intestine, as displayed in figure 13. The primary role of the rectum is to save the feces till defecation. The feces are driven using peristaltic movements during elimination. The anus is an opening at the far-end the the cradle tract and also is the exit point for the waste material.

The tiny intestine absorbs around 90 percent of the water friend ingest (either as liquid or within solid food). The large intestine absorbs many of the continuing to be water, a process that switch the fluid chyme residue into semisolid feces (“stool”). Feces is written of undigested food residues, unabsorbed digested substances, countless bacteria, old epithelial cell from the GI mucosa, inorganic salts, and enough water come let it happen smoothly the end of the body.

Feces are removed through contractions the the rectal muscles. You assist this procedure by a spontaneous procedure called Valsalva’s maneuver, in which you increase intra-abdominal push by contracting her diaphragm and also abdominal wall muscles, and also closing your glottis.


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is identified by abdominal discomfort linked with altered bowel activities and readjust in your bowel habits. IBS cause abdominal muscle discomfort in different ways, such together sharp pain, cramping, bloating, distention, fullness or also burning. IBS may be triggered by eating details foods, complying with a meal, emotional stress, constipation or diarrhea. Plenty of symptoms are related to hypersensitivity that the nerves found in the wall surface of the gastrointestinal tract.

Accessory Organs

Each accessory digestive organ aids in the break down of food. In ~ the mouth, the teeth and also tongue start mechanical digestion. Other accessory organs include secretions (enzymes) the catabolize food right into nutrients.

Accessory guts include salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, and also the gallbladder.

1. Salivary glands: There room three significant salivary glands the secrete saliva into the oral cavity —the parotid, the submandibular, and also the sublingual. Saliva contains mucus that moistens food and also buffers the pH of the food.2. The Liver: The liver is the largest gland in the body, weighing around three pounds in one adult. It is the largest inner organ in humans and also it dram a an extremely important role in digestion that fats and detoxifying blood. The liver lies inferior to the diaphragm in the right upper quadrant the the ab cavity and receives protection from the bordering ribs. The liver is separated into two major lobes: a big right lobe and also a much smaller left lobe. The lobes room further separated into lobules through blood vessels and connective tissue. The liver performs numerous functions and also is considered a crucial organ.

Liver features include:

Detoxifying the blood, creating bile, (a cradle juice that is compelled for the malfunction of fatty materials of the food in the duodenum.), management of carbohydrates, fats and also proteins, save iron, blood and vitamins, recycling red blood cells and also producing plasma proteins.


Cirrhosis is when scar tissue replaces healthy liver tissue. This stop the liver from functioning normally.Cirrhosis is a irreversible (chronic) liver disease. The damages to your liver build up end time.The many common causes of cirrhosis are:

Hepatitis: inflammation that the liver. Liver inflammation have the right to be resulted in by numerous viruses (viral hepatitis), chemicals, drugs, alcohol, certain genetic disorders or by one overactive immune system that mistakenly strikes the liver, called autoimmune hepatitis. Depending on its course, hepatitis have the right to be acute, i m sorry flares increase suddenly and also then walk away, or chronic, i m sorry is a long-term condition usually producing much more subtle symptoms and progressive liver damage.Nonalcoholic fat liver disease (this happens from metabolic syndrome and is brought about by problems such together obesity, high cholesterol and triglycerides, and also high blood pressure)What is Hepatitis C and also Why should You Care?

Bile : composition and also function.

Bile is a mixture secreted by the liver to achieve the emulsification of lipids in the tiny intestine. Recall the lipids space hydrophobic, that is, they carry out not dissolve in water. Thus, before they can be digested in the watery atmosphere of the little intestine, big lipid globules must be broken down right into smaller lipid globules, a procedure called emulsification.

Figure 15. The gallbladder stores and also concentrates bile, and also releases it into the two-way cystic duct when it is essential by the little intestine.

Hepatocytes (cells that liver) secrete around one liter of bile every day. A yellow-brown or yellow-green alkaline solution (pH 7.6 to 8.6), bile is a mixture that water, bile salts, bile pigments, phospholipids (such together lecithin), electrolytes, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The components most vital to emulsification space bile salts and also phospholipids, which have actually a nonpolar (hydrophobic) region as well together a polar (hydrophilic) region. The hydrophobic region interacts with the large lipid molecules, whereas the hydrophilic an ar interacts v the watery chyme in the intestine. This outcomes in the huge lipid globules gift pulled apart into plenty of tiny lipid pieces of about 1 µm in diameter. This change dramatically boosts the surface ar area available for lipid-digesting enzyme activity. This is the same means dish soap works on fats combined with water. Bile salt act together emulsifying agents, therefore they are likewise important because that the absorption of spend lipids.

Bilirubin, the main bile pigment, is a garbage product produced when the spleen clears old or damaged red blood cell from the circulation. Bilirubin is at some point transformed by minister bacteria into stercobilin, a brown colours that provides your stool its characteristics color!

Gallbladder stores and releases bile: The gallbladder is 8–10 centimeter (~3–4 in) long and also is nested in the best lobe that the liver. The liver secretes bile which is save in the gallbladder. This muscular sac stores, concentrates, and, once stimulated, propels the bile right into the duodenum via the usual bile duct. When chyme containing fat acids beginning the duodenum, the bile is secreted from the gallbladder into the duodenum.


Figure 16. The pancreas has a head, a body, and also a tail. It delivers pancreatic juice come the duodenum v the pancreatic duct.

The pancreas is another important gland the secretes cradle juices. The pancreas produces end a liter of pancreatic juice every day. Unlike bile, the is clear and also composed largely of water in addition to some salts, sodium bicarbonate, and several digestive enzymes.

Sodium bicarbonate is responsible because that the slim alkalinity the pancreatic juice (pH 7.1 come 8.2), which offer to buffer the acidic gastric juice in chyme, inactivate pepsin from the stomach, and also create an optimal atmosphere for the activity of pH-sensitive digestive enzymes in the little intestine.Pancreatic enzyme are active in the cradle of sugars, proteins, and fats.Pancreatic amylase digesting starchPancreatic lipase digesting fatPancreatic trypsin digesting proteinsPancreatic nuclease digesting nucleic acids

Pancreas additionally perform endocrine attributes releasing hormones into the blood.

Table 1. Attributes of the digestive Organs (summary)

OrganMajor functionsOther functions
MouthIngests foodChews and mixes foodBegins chemical failure of carbohydratesMoves food right into the pharynxBegins malfunction of lipids via lingual lipaseMoistens and also dissolves food, enabling you to taste itCleans and lubricates the teeth and also oral cavityHas part antimicrobial activity
PharynxPropels food indigenous the dental cavity to the esophagusLubricates food and also passageways
EsophagusPropels food to the stomachLubricates food and passageways
StomachMixes and also churns food with gastric juices to form chymeBegins chemical breakdown of proteinsReleases food into the duodenum together chymeAbsorbs part fat-soluble building material (for example, alcohol, aspirin)Possesses antimicrobial functionsStimulates protein-digesting enzymesSecretes intrinsic variable required for vitamin B12absorption in tiny intestine
Small intestineMixes chyme v digestive juicesPropels food in ~ a rate slow sufficient for digestion and also absorptionAbsorbs breakdown products of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and also nucleic acids, in addition to vitamins, minerals, and waterPerforms physical digestion via segmentationProvides optimal medium for enzymatic activity
Accessory organsLiver: to produce bile salts, i m sorry emulsify lipids, aiding your digestion and also absorptionGallbladder: stores, concentrates, and releases bilePancreas: produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonateBicarbonate-rich pancreatic juices assist neutralize acidic chyme and administer optimal environment for enzymatic activity
Large intestineFurther breaks under food residuesAbsorbs most residual water, electrolytes, and vitamins produced by enteric bacteriaPropels feces towards rectumEliminates fecesFood residue is concentrated and temporarily stored prior to defecationMucus eases passage of feces through colon
Rectumreceive stool indigenous the colon,to permit the human being know that there is stool to it is in evacuated, andto hold the stool till evacuation happens.

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Anusthe opened at the end of the alimentary canal with which hard waste matter leaves the body.