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Flourished:c.2400 BCE - c.2201 BCE...(Show more)Title / Office:king (2334BC-2279BC), Akkad...(Show more)
Sargon, byname Sargon the Akkad, (flourished 23rd century bce), old Mesopotamian ruler (reigned c. 2334–2279 bce) who was among the faster of the world’s good empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts that Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region’s first Semitic dynasty and also was taken into consideration the founder of the Mesopotamian army tradition.
Sargon is known nearly entirely from the legends and tales that adhered to his reputation through 2,000 year of cuneiform Mesopotamian history, and not from papers that were written throughout his lifetime. The absence of modern-day record is described by the truth that the capital city of Agade (Akkad), which the built, has never been located and also excavated. It was ruined at the finish of the empire that Sargon founded and also was never ever again inhabited, at least under the surname of Agade.
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history of Mesopotamia: Sargon’s reign
According come the Sumerian king list, the very first five rulers the Akkad (Sargon, Rimush, Manishtusu, Naram-Sin, and Shar-kali-sharri)...
According come a folktale, Sargon to be a self-made man of humble origins; a gardener, having found him as a infant floating in a basket ~ above the river, carried him up in his very own calling. His father is unknown; his very own name throughout his childhood is likewise unknown; his mommy is said to have been a priestess in a city on the middle Euphrates. Rising, therefore, there is no the aid of significant relations, the attained the post of cupbearer to the leader of the city that Kish, in the north of the old land of Sumer. The event that brought him to dominance was the defeat of Lugalzaggisi that Uruk (biblical Erech, in main Sumer). Lugalzaggisi had currently united the city-states the Sumer by beating each in turn and also claimed to rule the floor not just of the Sumerian city-states but likewise those as far west together the Mediterranean. Thus, Sargon ended up being king over all of southern Mesopotamia, the an initial great leader for whom, fairly than Sumerian, the Semitic tongue recognized as Akkadian was herbal from birth, return some previously kings through Semitic name are recorded in the Sumerian king list. Success was ensured, however, just by many battles, due to the fact that each city hope to restore its independence from Lugalzaggisi without submitting to the brand-new overlord. It may have been prior to these exploits, as soon as he was gathering followers and an army, that Sargon called himself Sharru-kin (“Rightful King”) in assistance of an accession not completed in an old-established city v hereditary succession. Historic records room still so meagre, however, the there is a complete gap in details relating to this period.
Not content with overcoming this area, his great to secure favourable trade through Agade transparent the well-known world, along with an energetic temperament, led Sargon to loss cities follow me the center Euphrates to northern Syria and also the silver-rich hills of southern Anatolia. He also dominated Susa, capital city that the Elamites, in the Zagros mountains of west Iran, where the only truly modern record of his reign has actually been uncovered. Such was his fame the some vendors in an Anatolian city, most likely in main Turkey, begged him to intervene in a regional quarrel, and, according to the legend, Sargon, with a tape of warriors, make a fabulous journey to the still-unlocated city that Burushanda (Purshahanda), in ~ the finish of i beg your pardon little much more than his illustration was required to settle the dispute.
As the an outcome of Sargon’s military prowess and capacity to organize, and also of the legacy of the Sumerian city-states the he had actually inherited by conquest and of formerly existing profession of the old Sumerian city-states with various other countries, advertising connections grew with the Indus Valley, the coast of Oman, the islands and shores the the Persian Gulf, the lapis lazuli mines the Badakhshān, the cedars of Lebanon, the silver-rich Taurus Mountains, Cappadocia, Crete, and also perhaps even Greece.
During Sargon’s ascendancy Akkadian became adjusted to the manuscript that previously had been used in the Sumerian language, and also the new spirit the calligraphy that is clearly shows upon the clay tablet computers of this dynasty is also clearly seen on modern-day cylinder seals, with their beautiful arranged and executed scene of mythology and festive life. Also if this brand-new artistic feeling is not necessarily to be attributed straight to the an individual influence of Sargon, it shows that, in his brand-new capital, military and economic values were no alone important.
Because modern record is lacking, no sequence deserve to be given for the events of his reign. No the number of years throughout which he live nor the allude in time in ~ which he ruled can be fixed exactly; 2334 bce is now given as a date on i m sorry to hang the beginning of the empire of Agade, and, follow to the Sumerian king list, he to be king because that 56 years.
The latter part of his regime was troubled with rebellions, which later literature ascribes, predictably enough, to sacrilegious acts the he is claimed to have committed; however this have the right to be discounted together the standard cause assigned come all disasters by Sumerians and also Akkadians alike. The troubles, in fact, to be probably led to by the i can not qualify of one man, yet energetic, to control so large an empire without a developed and also well-tried administration. Over there is no evidence to imply that that was particularly harsh, nor that the Sumerians disliked him for being a Semite. The realm did not collapse totally, because that Sargon’s successors were maybe to regulate their legacy, and later generations assumed of him as being possibly the greatest name in their history.
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Attributing his success come the patronage the the goddess Ishtar, in who honour Agade was erected, Sargon of Akkad came to be the very first great realm builder. Two later Assyrian queens were named in his honour. Return the summary recorded info of his predecessor Lugalzaggisi reflects that expansion beyond the Sumerian countryside had currently begun, later Mesopotamians looked to Sargon together the founder of the military legacy that runs v the history of their people.