Fixation that CO2 by pyruvic mountain in a reaction catalytic analysis by malic enzyme (NAD = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
From: Enological Chemistry, 2012
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J.P. Kamerling, G.J. Gerwig, in substantial Glycoscience, 2007
2.01.5.8 R/S Configuration decision of Pyruvic mountain Acetals
Pyruvic acid, connected as a cyclic acetal come a monosaccharide constituent, occurs typically in polysaccharides, however it has also been detected in glycoconjugate glycan chains. Usual examples room 4,6-pyruvated d-Glc, d-Man, and also d-Gal, 3,4-pyruvated d-Gal and l-Rha, and also 2,3-pyruvated d-Gal and d-GlcA. The pyruvic acid acetal carbon C2 is chiral, and also both the R- and also S-configuration have actually been found in pyruvated monosaccharides, for example, 4,6-O-<(R)-1-carboxyethylidene>-α-d-galactopyranose and 4,6-O-<(S)-1-carboxyethylidene>-β-d-mannopyranose. As is evident from figure 28, in both instances the methyl group occupies the equatorial position.
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The R/S-configuration the pyruvates deserve to be figured out by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.170 In the case of 4,6-O-pyruvated d-Glc residues, the R-configuration coincides with a 1H CH3 signal in ~ δ 1.65–1.68, and the S-configuration through a 1H CH3 signal in ~ δ 1.48–1.50. Because that 4,6-O-pyruvated d-Gal residues the values for the R- and also S-configuration are δ 1.46–1.52 and δ 1.66, respectively. Keep in mind that in fact the variety δ 1.46–1.52 coincides with an equatorial orientation that the methyl group, and the variety δ 1.65–1.68 v an axial orientation. The 13C worths of the methyl groups are even an ext pronounced: δ ∼ 18 because that axial methyl groups (R in d-Glc and also S in d-Gal), and also δ 26–27 for equatorial methyl teams (S in d-Glc and also d-Man, and R in d-Gal). In the instance of 3,4-O-pyruvated d-Gal residual water the situation is more complicated. In their reduced type (3,4-O-hydroxyisopropylidene group), significant differences have actually been observed because that the R- (δCH3 1.30; δCH3 21.8) and also S- (δCH3 1.42–1.46; δCH3 23.5–24.3) configuration; because that naturally developing 3,4-O-pyruvated d-Gal (methyl group in endo-orientation) just data matching with the S-form room known: δCH3 1.41–1.60; δCH3 24.6–25.5. NMR data of man-made model compounds have been reported;171,172 included references on several polysaccharide studies provide insight into the natural stereochemical orientations. A common study of an extracellular polysaccharide, containing two pyruvated hexoses, is a further instance of together analyses.173