Maltose<1>
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Chemical name4-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-glucose
Other namesMaltoseMalt sugarMaltobiose
Chemical formulaC12H22O11
Molecular mass342.1162 g/mol
CAS number<69-79-4>
Density1.54 g/cm3 <2>
Solubility1.080 g/ml (20 °C) in water<2>
Melting point102-103 °C (monohydrate)
Boiling pointN/A
SMILESOCH>1O
Disclaimer and references

Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units that glucose joined v an α(1→4) linkage. Maltose is not typical in food, but can be created from the digestion of starch, and also is hefty in the street in malt, the juice the barley and other grains. Maltose is a member of vital biochemical series of glucose chains. The disaccharides maltose, sucrose, and also lactose have actually the same chemical formula, C12H22O11, however, they different in structure (see structure below).

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Maltose have the right to be created from strength by hydrolysis in the presence of the enzyme diastase. It can be broken down right into two glucose molecules by hydrolysis. In living organisms, the enzyme maltase can achieve this an extremely rapidly. In the laboratory, heating through a strong acid for number of minutes will create the very same result.

There is an additional disaccharide that deserve to be do from two glucoses, cellobiose, which differs only in the form of link used in the bond. While the difference between these 2 structures, maltose and also cellobiose, is subtle, cellobiose has an extremely different properties and also cannot be hydrolized come glucose in the human body. The specific pathways offered for these two molecules (some organisms have the right to digest cellobiose) reflects the facility coordination in nature.


Maltose is vital in the fermentation of alcohol, together starch is convert to carbohydrates and is readily broken down into glucose molecules through the maltase enzyme present in yeast. As soon as cereals such together barley is malted, it is lugged into a problem in which the concentration the maltose has actually been maximized. Metabolism of maltose through yeast throughout fermentation climate leads come the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Structure

Maltose is a carbohydrate (sugar). Carbohydrates room a class of biological molecules that contain mostly carbon (C) atom flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and also hydroxyl (OH) teams (H-C-OH). They are called according come the number of carbon atoms they contain, with most sugars having between three and seven carbon atom termed triose (three carbons), tetrose (four carbons), pentose (five carbons), hexose (six carbons), or heptose (seven carbons).

The single most typical monosaccharide is the hexose D-glucose, stood for by the formula C6H12O6. In enhancement to arising as a totally free monosaccharide, glucose additionally occurs in disaccharides, i beg your pardon consist of two monosaccharide units linked covalently. Each disaccharide is formed by a condensation reaction in which over there is a lose of hydrogen (H) indigenous one molecule and a hydroxyl team (OH) native the other. The resulting glycosidic bond—those that join a carbohydrate molecule come an alcohol, which might be another carbohydrate—is the characteristic linkage between sugars, whether in between two glucose molecules, or in between glucose and also fructose, and so forth. As soon as two glucose molecule are linked together, such together in maltose, glycosidic bonds type between carbon 1 that the first glucose molecule and carbon 4 that the 2nd glucose molecule. (The carbons of glucose space numbered start with the an ext oxidized finish of the molecule, the carbonyl group.)


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Maltose, pictured here, has actually an α-linkage, the OH team of carbon 1 on the an initial glucose points downwards. Cellobiose has actually a β-linkage, the OH team of carbon 1 top top the an initial glucose point out upwards.

Three usual disaccharides are maltose, sucrose, and also lactose. Castle share the same chemical formula, C12H22O11, however involve different structures. Whereas maltose web links two glucose devices by an α(1→4) glycosidic linkage, lactose (milk sugar) entails glucose and galactose bonded v a β1-4 glycosidic linkage, and sucrose (common table sugar) is composed of a glucose and also a fructose joined by a glycosidic bond in between carbon atom 1 that the glucose unit and carbon atom 2 that the furustos unit.

Although the disaccharide maltose consists of two glucose molecules, that is not the just disaccharide that have the right to be do from 2 glucoses. As soon as glucose molecules form a glycosidic bond, the linkage will be one of two types, α or β, depending upon whether the molecule the bonds the carbon 1 is one α-glucose or β-glucose. One α-linkage through carbon 4 that a 2nd glucose molecule outcomes in maltose, vice versa, a β-linkage results in cellobiose. As disaccharides, maltose and also cellobiose also share the same formula C12H22O11, yet they are different compounds with different properties. For example, maltose deserve to be hydrolyzed come its monosaccharides in the human being body wherein as cellobiose cannot. Some organisms have the volume to break down cellobiose.

The addition of one more glucose unit yields maltotriose. Further enhancements will produce dextrins, likewise called maltodextrins, and also eventually starch.

Function

Maltose is vital intermediate in the digestion of starch. Strength is offered by plants as a method to save glucose. ~ cellulose, starch is the many abundant polysaccharide in tree cells. Pets (and plants) digest starch, convert it come glucose to offer as a resource of energy. Maltose can kind from this starch when it is damaged down, and also it in turn can be readily digested into the glucose molecules, the major free sugar turn in the blood of higher animals, and the wanted fuel the the brain and worried system. Lu and Sharkey (2006) report that maltose is the predominant type of carbon exported from plant chloroplasts at night, native the failure of starch.

Maltose is an amazing compound due to the fact that of its use in alcohol production. Through a procedure called fermentation, glucose, maltose, and also other sugars are converted to ethanol by yeast cells in the lack of oxygen. Through an analogous process, muscle cells transform glucose right into lactic acid to acquire energy when the body operates under anaerobic conditions. Although maltose is uncommon in nature, it can be developed through the malfunction of starch by the enzymes of the mouth.

Maltose, i m sorry is one-third as sweet as sucrose, was offered to sweeten foods at least as far ago as the saturday century by the Chinese (Bender and Bender 2005).

See also

Notes


References

Lu, Y. And also T. D. Sharkey. 2006. The prestige of maltose in transitory strength breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29:353-366.

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