human Anatomy and Physiology aid » gun Anatomy » Introductory concepts » defining Anatomical Orientations
Explanation:

Terms provided to define the orientation that a structure commonly have a indigenous that means the opposite therefore they deserve to be regarded one another. Proximal method that the structure is closer come a suggest of attachment, if lateral describes a structure being far from the middle of the body. The the contrary term because that proximal is distal, meaning away indigenous the suggest of attachment, and also the opposing term for lateral is medial, definition toward the center line.

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Superior suggests above, when inferior indicates below. Anterior refers to the front, if posterior describes the back. Superficial shows that a framework is near the surface, when deep suggests that it is under various other structures.


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Example inquiry #2 : defining Anatomical Orientations


Which the the following structures is distal to the elbow?


Possible Answers:

Wrist


Shoulder


Biceps brachii


Sternum


Correct answer:

Wrist


Explanation:

When a structure is distal to one more structure, that is farther indigenous the point of attachment to the body. The wrist is farther from the point of attachment to the body 보다 the elbow, so the is distal come the elbow.

The shoulder is considered superior (above) and also proximal come the elbow, indicating the it is closer to the point of attachment.


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Example concern #1 : defining Anatomical Orientations


What is the opposite activity of pronation? 


Possible Answers:

Supination


Circumduction


Dorsiflexion


Eversion


Correct answer:

Supination


Explanation:

Pronation is the action of rotating the wrist so the the palm is facing downward. The opposite impact is rotating the wrist so that the palm deals with upward. This action is called supination.

Eversion is the activity of rotating the foot such that the medial an ar is oriented downward. Dorsiflexion is the activity of decreasing the angle in between the foot and also the leg. Circumduction refers to the pattern of circular motion resulted in by multiple muscle at a joint, such as rotating the table of contents finger in little circles.


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Example question #4 : defining Anatomical Orientations


What direction does her hand move with radial deviation the the wrist?


Possible Answers:

Laterally


Anteriorly


Medially


Posteriorly


Correct answer:

Laterally


Explanation:

In anatomic position, radial deviation of the wrist results in her hand moving laterally far from the midline the the body.

Ulnar deviation the the wrist will reason the hand to move medially.


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Example inquiry #5 : defining Anatomical Orientations


The term "proximal" indicates a place that is __________ another location.


Possible Answers:

next to


closer come the trunk than


closer come the midline than


farther from the midline than


farther indigenous the tribe than


Correct answer:

closer to the trunk than


Explanation:

"Proximal" is a way to explain locations in the extremities and appendages. A much more proximal structure is located closer come the trunk, typically indicating closer to the shoulder or hip. In contrast, distal indicates a ar that is farther indigenous the trunk and also closer to the end of the appendage. Because that example, there room three bones in each finger known as the phalanges. These bones are called according come orientation: proximal phalanx, intermediate phalanx, and also distal phalanx. Every one of these, the course, are located distal to the metacarpals (wrist).

The terms "medial" and "lateral" are used to describe relative ar toward the midline. A medial structure is closer to the midline (think nose and navel), when a lateral structure is farther indigenous the midline. The term supplied to describe one structure that is next to an additional is "adjacent."


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Example concern #6 : specifying Anatomical Orientations


What is a synonym for anterior?


Possible Answers:

Dorsal


Sternal


Ventral


Superficial


Superior


Correct answer:

Ventral


Explanation:

Anterior and posterior space opposites, v anterior referring to the front of the body and also posterior introduce to the back. Ventral is offered interchangeably through anterior, and dorsal is provided interchangeably with posterior. Essentially, anterior and also ventral both show "front," when posterior and also dorsal both indicate "back."

Sternal is used to describe the sternum and also is frequently used together a medial reference point in thoracic biologic or medicine. Superficial means closer to the skin, vice versa, deep indicates that a framework is farther from the skin. Superior suggests "upward" and is commonly a synonym through cranial (toward the head). In contrast, inferior shows "downward" and also is regularly a synonym with caudal (toward the coccyx).


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Example concern #7 : defining Anatomical Orientations


What go "lateral" mean in directional anatomy?


Possible Answers:

In in between the midline and the dermis


Away indigenous the midline the the body


Away indigenous the latissimus dorsi muscle


Close come the latissimus dorsi muscle


Attached come the midline the the body


Correct answer:

Away indigenous the midline the the body


Explanation:

Lateral is a basic directional that can be used to objects farther native the midline the the body. The midline is characterized as the medial sagittal plane, normally including the navel and nose. Structures such together the shoulders, ears, and hips are thought about lateral. When supplied in family member terms, we have the right to say the the lungs are lateral come the heart and the ovaries room lateral come the uterus. In contrast, the opposite hatchet of lateral is medial; the heart is medial to the lungs and the uterus is medial come the ovaries.

The latissimus dorsi muscle are located on both political parties of the spine, and also their surname is directionally descriptive. They have actually no bearing ~ above directional terms, unless used as referral points. Anatomical frameworks attached come the midline might be defined as lateral, yet only if castle deviate furthermore left or best from the midline. A structure deserve to be attached come the midline, however run fully vertical in the medial sagittal plane.


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Example inquiry #8 : specifying Anatomical Orientations


A transverse ar separates the body right into which of the adhering to orientations?


Possible Answers:

Legs and torso


Medial and also sagittal


Left and also right


Anterior and also posterior


Superior and inferior


Correct answer:

Superior and also inferior


Explanation:

A transverse slice is the only view to ar the body v the horizontal plane. The an outcome is a superior an ar (above the cut) and an inferior an ar (below the cut). A transverse ar of the brain is usually provided to present the lentiform nucleus (consisting of the globus pallidus and putamen) and the caudate.

A coronal section runs from right to left throughout the body, splitting it into an anterior (ventral) portion and posterior (dorsal) portion.

A sagittal part runs native anterior to posterior, dividing the body into left and right regions. A perfectly focused sagittal slice is dubbed a medial sagittal section.


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Example question #9 : specifying Anatomical Orientations


A coronal ar divides the body right into which that the complying with orientations?


Possible Answers:

Superior and also inferior


Left and right


Anterior and posterior


Medial and also sagittal 


Head and body


Correct answer:

Anterior and also posterior


Explanation:

A coronal ar runs from appropriate to left across the body, splitting it right into an anterior (ventral) section and posterior (dorsal) portion. As soon as a coronal section is provided to examine the brain, the lateral ventricle and also thalamus space generally very prominent.

If the human body were separated right into inferior and also superior sections, for example head and also body, climate a transverse part must have been used. A transverse part is the only view to section the body v the horizontal plane.

A sagittal slice runs indigenous anterior to posterior, dividing the body right into left and also right regions. A perfectly centered sagittal part is dubbed a medial sagittal section. 


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Example question #10 : defining Anatomical Orientations


The brain is located in i beg your pardon cavity the the body?


Possible Answers:

The ventral cavity


The pelvic cavity


The anterior cavity


The skull cavity


The dorsal cavity


Correct answer:

The dorsal cavity


Explanation:

The body is divided into two major cavities, which space then subdivided right into several smaller sized cavities. The main cavities are the dorsal cavity and also the ventral cavity. The dorsal cavity is subdivided right into the vertebral cavity, i beg your pardon runs v the vertebrae and holds the spinal cord, and the cranial cavity. The cranial cavity is located within the skull and contains the brain. Due to the fact that the cranial cavity is not given as solution option, the best choice is the dorsal cavity.

The ventral cavity is more complicated and contains much more subcavities. The main divisions are the thoracic cavity, ab cavity, and also pelvic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

There are not technological structures known as the anterior cavity or skull cavity.

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