Agaricus bisporus, is the most acquainted mushroom for many of united state — it is the advertising mushroom offered in grocery store stores and put top top pizza. It comes in assorted forms: switch versions, brown version and huge portobello versions—all of which are arrays of the exact same species. Its popular is no so lot a consequence of flavor together it is a repercussion of its suitability because that commercial production. Agaricus does flourish wild, typically in fields or lawns but all of the Agaricus mushrooms marketed in stores room grown ~ above a regulated medium and in a regulated environment, often in caves or underground frameworks not so much for the darkness but due to the fact that of consistent temperatures and high humidities.


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Phylogeny

Agaricus, and nearly every one of the mushroom that would certainly be explained as mushrooms, i.e. That create stalked frameworks with a cap, room club mushroom = basidiomycete mushroom (Phylum Basidiomycota). Many mushrooms have ‘gills’ ~ above the underside that the cap wherein spores room produced and Agaricus shows this feature. Historically all mushrooms through gills were put in a taxonomic entity (usually one order, the Agaricales) but recent molecular analysis has demonstrated the gills space not a sound function on i beg your pardon to base a phylogenetic classification. Although over there still is an stimulate Agaricales, called for Agaricus, it does no contain all gilled mushrooms and also it does encompass a variety of fungi that carry out not possess gills.

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Structure

Like nearly all mushroom and virtually all society fungi, the mass of a mushroom’s structure is a network the unicellular, branching filaments (hypae) the permeate, in the instance of Agaricus, the soil, or the compost the the mushroom is grown on/in (typically manure with other material added to it). In club fungi the filaments room cellular, an interpretation that there room individual cells, delineated through the existence of cross-walls (septa). The septa are not complete yet usually have a spicy in the center that permits cytoplasm to move from one cabinet to another. The fruiting human body of Agaricus is a consequence of drastic change in the actions of hyphae. Rather of cultivation in a diffuse manner and spreading throughout your environment, they grow close to each other and also intertwine, creating a solid framework that increase from the substrate the is cultivation in and also produces the familiar mushroom structure

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The underside the a mushroom cap, mirroring the gills, the place of spore production.

Sex and reproduction

Agaricus  completes its sex-related cycle by developing basidiospores ~ above the spare of the gills the the mushroom. Like nearly all fungi in the Basidiomycete group, the organism exists generally in a ‘dikaryon’ state where each cell has actually two nuclei, one indigenous each parent after two haploid hyphae fuse. Just in particular parts that the fruiting body carry out the two nuclei fuse to type a diploid cell the then experience meiosis to develop haploid, ‘sexual’ spores. However, because that a mushroom farmer, reproduction of Agaricus is totally asexual. They perform not sow spores, rather they usage pieces of mycelium (the name given to swarm of hyphae), induce it to grow and also then wake up it to create fruiting bodies. Few of the mycelium remains and also can be provided to proceed the process. The mycelium is probably capable of living hundreds of years.


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Light microscopy of Coprinus showing a sectional view of the mushroom Coprinus where the gills deserve to be seen through basidiospores lining the gills. A=Gill, B=Basiospore. Range bar = 0.3mm
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Light microscopy the Coprinus with the edge of the gills where basidium deserve to be seen v basidiospores. A=Sterigma, B=Basidium, C=Basidiospore, D=Immature basidia. Scale bar = 0.01mm.

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Matter and energy

Agaricus is a typical heterotroph that feeds top top biomass produced by various other living organisms. Castle secrete enzymes into their atmosphere that malfunction organic issue into an easy forms that deserve to be absorbed into the hyphae and also then lock re-assemble these products to make brand-new fungal biomass. Fungi are taken into consideration ‘decomposers’, yet what is not regularly appreciated is that their nutrition is the very same as predators, herbivores and omnivores (including humans). All are heterotrophs and obtain nutrition through breaking under (decomposing) essential material developed by various other organisms. Together a result of their tasks they make much more of themselves (i.e. They could be taken into consideration a ‘producer’) but due to the fact that they breakdown much more material than they create they room net ‘decomposers’.

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In advertising operations, the mycelia space feed ‘conditioned’ compost. Friend may have heard that mushrooms eat horse droppings—this isn’t precisely true. To feeding commercial mushrooms farmers take it compost containing steed droppings and also other products (e.g. Straw) and allow it to ferment because that a mainly or two. During this time the compost is ‘eaten’ by bacteria, various other fungi and microscopic animals. This organisms malfunction the compost, putting it in a type more agree to the advertisement fungus. They also build up their populations, and also the advertisement fungus feeds on this ‘primary decomposer’ populations. For this reason the advertisement fungus no eat equine droppings, the eats points that themselves eat steed droppings, in addition to the remnants of equine droppings left behind after the ‘first’ eating.

Interactions

Like many organisms, interactions between Agaricus and other organisms and the physical environment are extremely vital to that is success. This is reflect in the links below that define how mushrooms space commercially grown. As explained above, Agaricus is known as a ‘secondary decomposer’—it feeds on product after it has been eaten by ‘primary decomposers’; this is similar to the interaction of cows with the microbe in their stomachs. Cows can not digest grass, they require the microbes come act ~ above the grass (in among their stomachs) and produce something that they deserve to utilize. Agaricus is also really strongly affected by (i.e. Interacts with) physics conditions, in particular temperature, humidity and the concentration of carbon dioxide, both to permit the mycelium to grow rapidly and to initiate the manufacturing of fruiting bodies.


“Agaricus bisporus” by Michael Kuo: “Agaricus bisporus, the white switch mushroom or pizza mushroom, also known as Portabella and also Crimini” by Tom Volk and also Kelly Ivors:“Fungiculture” on Wikipedia: