GRE topic Test: Chemistry assist » general Chemistry » Elements and the regular Table » regular Trends » atom Radius
Explanation:

Most people clearly understand that atomic radius will rise as friend go down the periodic table. However, going native left to best will actually decrease atom radius. The reason is the the raised positive charge in the nucleus indigenous the added protons will certainly pull the electron closer, decreasing the radius. That the offered options, arsenic and also selenium are in the lowest row, but arsenic is more to the left. As a result, it has the largest atomic radius.

You are watching: Which of the following atoms has the greatest atomic radius?


Explanation:

The tendency for atom radius is to increase going from height to bottom, as additional valence shells are added to the atom. Out of the price choices, rubidium has actually the highest power valence shell.

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With a solitary electron in the fifth power level, krypton will have actually the highest variety of energy levels of the group I elements listed.

When moving throughout a period, atom radius will decrease together the variety of protons increases. These protons rise the attraction between the high-energy electrons and also the nucleus, efficiently "shrinking" the electron cloud.


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Example inquiry #1 : atom Radius


Which of the following has the largest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

*



*


*


Correct answer:


Explanation:

Atomic radius rises with increasing efficient nuclear charge (Z). Facets toward the right and toward the height of the regular table have the highest Z values. Protons and electrons are included in pairs as we traverse the periodic table from left come right. A attractive force is established in between the positively-charged nucleus and also the negatively-charged electron cloud, which rises as the variety of particles grows.

When electrons are added or taken far without the same happening to a proton, one imbalance of charge accumulates. When more electrons are present than normal, the electron cloud sags farther far from the nucleus. Once fewer electrons are existing than normal, the electron cloud is attracted in more tightly toward the nucleus. Atoms through extra electron (a an unfavorable charge) will have actually larger nuclei than their neutral counterparts. A chloride ion will thus has actually a larger atomic radius 보다 argon, a potassium ion, or a calcium ion.


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Example concern #1 : atomic Radius


Which of the following facets has the best atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

N


O


F


C


B


Correct answer:

B


Explanation:

Atomic radius have the right to be established using the regular trends. Atom radius rises to the left of a period and under a group of the regular table. Electronegativity, in contrast, boosts to the best of a duration and increase a team of the periodic table. Relating the two, we deserve to see that the higher the atom radius, the weaker its electronegativity because the electrons room farther far from the nucleus and also are can not to feel the attractive force of the proton in the nucleus.


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Example question #1 : atomic Radius


Which the the provided atoms has the smallest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Bi


As


P


N


Correct answer:

N


Explanation:

Nitrogen, phosphorous, antimony, and bismuth room all in the same team (column) that the periodic table.

The atom radius boosts from the peak of a group to the bottom, as result of increased principle covering number (n). Together one travels under a group, an additional s shell is added, meaning that electron are included in another orbit farther indigenous the nucleus. This serves to increase the atom radius the the atom.


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Example concern #1 : atom Radius


Which of the provided atoms has the largest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Ne


O


Li


B


Correct answer:

Li


Explanation:

Lithium, boron, oxygen, and neon are all in the exact same row (period) that the routine table.

The atom radius decreases indigenous left to right along a period due to increased reliable nuclear force. From left to right the atom number increases, describe that much more protons are added. The addition of protons rises the confident charge in the nucleus, pulling in the external electrons by boosting the efficient nuclear force, decreasing the radius.

In mathematics terms, we can equate efficient nuclear force using the force equation in between two charged particles.

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We deserve to see the the farther personal the electrons and also protons are, the less the force is in between them.


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Example inquiry #1 : atomic Radius


Which of the following would have actually the greatest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Iodine


Flourine


Chlorine


Bromine


Correct answer:

Iodine


Explanation:

Atomic radius increases down each team of the routine table and toward the left of every period. Since the elements provided are all in the very same group, iodine would have the best atomic radius due to the fact that it farther down the duration compared come the others. 


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Example inquiry #1 : atomic Radius


Which of the following correctly explains the trend for atomic radius in the regular table the elements?


Possible Answers:

Atomic radius increases with increasing energy level. Atom radius decreases as brand-new electrons are included within the same orbital.


Atomic radius decreases with increasing energy level. Atom radius boosts as brand-new electrons are added within the exact same orbital.


Atomic radius decreases with increasing energy level. Atomic radius remains continuous as new electrons are added within the exact same orbital.


Atomic radius increases with increasing energy level. Atomic radius boosts as new electrons are included within the very same orbital.


Atomic radius rises with increasing power level. Atomic radius remains continuous as new electrons are added within the same orbital.


Correct answer:

Atomic radius rises with increasing power level. Atomic radius reduce as brand-new electrons are added within the exact same orbital.


Explanation:

Energy level boosts moving down a group of the routine table. As energy level increases, the outer valence shell becomes an ext distant indigenous the nucleus, resulting in atomic radius to increase.

Energy level remains constant across a period, yet electrons are added within the very same orbitals. When brand-new electrons are included within the very same orbital, added protons are also added to the nucleus. This increases the reliable nuclear charge, pulling the electron closer to the nucleus. The tendency for atom radius is to decrease together we relocate right follow me a row.

This method that the basic trend because that atomic radius is to boost as one move to the left and downward on the periodic table.


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Example inquiry #2 : atomic Radius


Which atom would certainly be meant to have the largest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Magensium


Aluminum


Nitrogen


Calcium


Oxygen


Correct answer:

Calcium


Explanation:

The radius of one atom is determined by the sizes of the orbitals top top its outermost shell. Listed below are the atomic radius trends:

1. Atom radius increases from optimal to bottom within every column.

2. Atomic radius decreases native left to right within every period.

Because calcium is located closest to the bottom ideal on the routine table, it has actually the highest atomic radius. Namely, this is due to the fact that calcium"s highest energy electron is in the fourth power shell.


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Example question #1 : atomic Radius


Which atom would certainly be expected to have actually the smallest atomic radius?


Possible Answers:

Phosphorus


Nitrogen


Potassium


Magnesium


Sodium


Correct answer:

Nitrogen


Explanation:

The radius of an atom is determined by the sizes of the orbitals ~ above its outermost shell. Below are the atomic radius trends:

1. Atom radius increases from peak to bottom within every column.

2. Atom radius decreases native left to appropriate within a period.

Because nitrogen is furthest come the the peak right ~ above the periodic table, it has actually the smallest atomic radius.

See more: Metals Have Low Ionization Energies And Readily Share Their, Lecture 12: Chemical Bonding


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