belongs come the course of inorganic compounds well-known as shift metal bromides. This are not natural compounds in which the largest halogen atom is Bromine, and the heaviest metal atom a change metal.
High-affinity binding of the divalent mercuric ion come thiol or sulfhydryl teams of proteins is believed to it is in the major mechanism because that the task of mercury. V alterations in intracellular thiol status, mercury can promote oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and also changes in heme metabolism. Mercury is known to tie to microsomal and mitochondrial enzymes, bring about cell injury and death. Because that example, mercury is well-known to inhibit aquaporins, halting water flow across the cell membrane. It also inhibits the protein LCK, which causes decreased T-cell signalling and immune device depression. Mercury is additionally believed to inhibit neuronal excitability by exhilaration on the postsynaptic neuronal membrane. It also affects the nervous device by inhibiting protein kinase C and also alkaline phosphatase, which impairs brain microvascular formation and function, and also alters the blood-brain barrier. Mercury additionally produces one autoimmune response, likely by alteration of major histocompatibility facility (MHC) class II molecules, self peptides, T-cell receptors, or cell-surface adhesion molecules. Bromine is a powerful oxidizing agent and also is able to relax oxygen cost-free radicals indigenous the water in mucous membranes. These complimentary radicals are also potent oxidizers and also produce tissue damage. In additon, the formation of hydrobromic and bromic acids will an outcome in an additional irritation. The bromide ion is likewise known to impact the main nervous system, leading to bromism. This is believed to be a result of bromide ion substituting because that chloride ion in the in actions of neurotransmitters and also transport systems, thus affecting numerous synaptic processes. (18, 19, 7, 11, 4, 5, 6)
Mercury is absorbed mainly via ingestion and inhalation, then spread throughout the human body via the bloodstream, wherein a part binds to sulfhydryl groups on haemoglobin. Mercury have the right to undergo oxidation to mercuric mercury, i m sorry takes ar via the catalase-hydrogen peroxide pathway. The mercury atom is able to diffuse under the slot in the catalase enzyme to with the active site wherein the heme ring is located. Oxidation most most likely occurs in all tissue, as the catalase hydrogen peroxide pathway is ubiquitous. Adhering to oxidation, mercury often tends to accumulate in the kidneys. Mercury is excreted mainly by exhalation and also in the faeces. Bromine is mainly absorbed via inhalation, but may likewise enter the body v dermal contact. Bromine salts can be ingested. Due to its reactivity, bromine easily forms bromide and also may be deposited in the tissues, displacing other halogens. (18, 2, 11)
1 gram for an adult person (average for inorganic mercurials). (8)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)
3, not classifiable regarding its carcinogenicity come humans. (15)
Mercury(II) bromide is used mainly as a laboratory reagent. (16)
Minimum hazard Level
Chronic Inhalation: 0.0002 mg/m3 (Mercury) (14)
Mercury mostly affects the concerned system. Exposure to high level of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus. Results on brain functioning may an outcome in irritability, shyness, tremors, alters in vision or hearing, and memory problems. Acrodynia, a type of mercury poisoning in children, is defined by pain and pink discoloration of the hands and feet. Mercury poisoning can likewise cause Hunter-Russell syndrome and Minamata disease. Bromine vapour reasons irritation and direct damage to the mucous membranes. Element bromine likewise burns the skin. The bromide ion is a main nervous device depressant and also chronic exposure to produce neuronal effects. This is called bromism and can result in main reactions reaching from somnolence to coma, cachexia, exicosis, lose of reflexes or pathologic reflexes, clonic seizures, tremor, ataxia, loss of neural sensitivity, paresis, papillar edema that the eyes, abnormal speech, cerebral edema, delirium, aggressiveness, and also psychoses. (17, 18, 19, 11)
Common symptoms encompass peripheral neuropathy (presenting as paresthesia or itching, burning or pain), skin discoloration (pink cheeks, fingertips and also toes), edema (swelling), and desquamation (dead skin peels off in layers). (1)
EYES: water opened eyes for numerous minutes under to run water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth v water (never offer anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek prompt medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the impacted parts in cold running water because that at the very least 15 minutes, complied with by thoroughly washing through soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower head and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then need to seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply new air. If required provide artificial respiration.
PubChem compound ID
Baselt RC (2000). Disposition of toxicity Drugs and also Chemicals in Man, 5th ed. Foster City, CA: chemical Toxicology Institute. Golomb, BA (1999). A review of the Scientific literature As It pertains to Gulf battle Illnesses. Volume 2: Pyridostigmine Bromide. Washington, DC: RAND.